This depends on both what is meant by “modernity” and the varied interpretations by Muslims on this subject. If by modernity one means science, the scientific method and technological advances, then we know that scientific exploration and technological innovation flourished in the Islamic cultures of the Middle Ages, commonly known as the Golden Age of Islam. And today, millions of Muslims are involved, often in leading positions, in the fields of science, mathematics, medicine, engineering and other scientific fields.

If by modernity one means democracy and individual rights such as freedom of thought, expression religion, and conscience, then Muslim attitudes vary.

While some Muslims view these rights as secondary to religious principles conveyed by Islam, others consider these rights to be fundamental principles of Islam; a Pew poll of Muslims worldwide taken in 2013 showed substantial majorities in favor of democracy and religious freedom. Some Muslims cite the tradition of ijtihad (independent thinking) as an essential aspect of Islamic scholarly tradition that fosters reform, reinterpretation, and the exploration and advocacy of new ideas.

However many Muslims, like members of other religious groups, are concerned about the devastating effects that modernity and its accompanying technological advances, when influenced only by factors relating to economic profit and short-term gain, have had upon our environment and the world.