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This question, as posed, assumes that there is only one way of looking at Jesus (peace be upon him), as a “non-violent reformer.” This is not the case, just as it is not the case with Muhammad (peace be upon him), who has been and is seen in many different ways by Muslims.

In his book Jesus through the Centuries, church historian Jaroslav Pelikan depicts and analyses the varied views of Jesus at different times and in different cultures. He devotes a whole chapter to Jesus as both “Prince of Peace” and instigator of divine warfare—sometimes at one and the same time.

The representations of Muhammad (peace be upon him) are likewise multiple. In her book The Lives of Muhammad, Kecia Ali writes “Far from being uniform or non-changing, both non-Muslim and Muslim views of Muhammad have been diverse, multifaceted, and subject to dramatic changes over the centuries.”

Even when one considers Jesus and Muhammad (peace be upon them) as historical figures, it is important to keep in mind a significant difference between their positions. Jesus (peace be upon him) founded a community of believers that was politically powerless and had to function in the shadow of the overwhelming power of the Roman Empire. Muhammad (peace be upon him), on the other hand, eventually found himself at the head of a new political community in Medina and was therefore called upon to function as a political and even military leader. Whatever differences one may find between Muhammad and Jesus (peace be upon them) should not obscure the fact that, in our vision of Islam, both Christianity and Islam uphold the principle of respect for life.